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Original Article
May 2, 2011

Epidemiology of Autism Spectrum Disorders in Adults in the Community in England

Author Affiliations

Author Affiliations: Department of Health Sciences, University of Leicester, Leicester (Drs Brugha, Bankart, and Meltzer and Ms Smith); National Centre for Social Research, London (Ms McManus and Dr Purdon); Autism Research Centre, Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (Dr Scott); Department of Mental Health Sciences, University College London, London (Dr Bebbington); and Institute of Psychiatry, Kings College London, London (Dr Jenkins), England.

Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2011;68(5):459-465. doi:10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2011.38
Abstract

Context  To our knowledge, there is no published information on the epidemiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) in adults. If the prevalence of autism is increasing, rates in older adults would be expected to be lower than rates among younger adults.

Objective  To estimate the prevalence and characteristics of adults with ASD living in the community in England.

Design  A stratified, multiphase random sample was used in the third national survey of psychiatric morbidity in adults in England in 2007. Survey data were weighted to take account of study design and nonresponse so that the results were representative of the household population.

Setting  General community (ie, private households) in England.

Participants  Adults (people 16 years or older).

Main Outcome Measures  Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, Module 4 in phase 2 validated against the Autism Diagnostic Interview–Revised and Diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorders in phase 3. A 20-item subset of the Autism-Spectrum Quotient self-completion questionnaire was used in phase 1 to select respondents for phase 2. Respondents also provided information on sociodemographics and their use of mental health services.

Results  Of 7461 adult participants who provided a complete phase 1 interview, 618 completed phase 2 diagnostic assessments. The weighted prevalence of ASD in adults was estimated to be 9.8 per 1000 (95% confidence interval, 3.0-16.5). Prevalence was not related to the respondent's age. Rates were higher in men, those without educational qualifications, and those living in rented social (government-financed) housing. There was no evidence of increased use of services for mental health problems.

Conclusions  Conducting epidemiologic research on ASD in adults is feasible. The prevalence of ASD in this population is similar to that found in children. The lack of an association with age is consistent with there having been no increase in prevalence and with its causes being temporally constant. Adults with ASD living in the community are socially disadvantaged and tend to be unrecognized.

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