Nicotine Dependence and Psychiatric Disorders in the United States: Results From the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and RelatedConditions | Psychiatry and Behavioral Health | JAMA Psychiatry | JAMA Network
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Original Article
November 2004

Nicotine Dependence and Psychiatric Disorders in the United States: Results From the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and RelatedConditions

Author Affiliations

Author Affiliations: Laboratory of Epidemiologyand Biometry, Division of Intramural Clinical and Biological Research, NationalInstitute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health,Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, Md (Drs Grant, Chou, Stinson,and Dawson); and Departments of Epidemiology and Psychiatry, Columbia Universityand New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York, NY (Dr Hasin).

Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2004;61(11):1107-1115. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.61.11.1107
Abstract

Background  No information is available on the co-occurrence of DSM-IV nicotine dependence and Axis I and II psychiatric disorders in the US population.

Objectives  To present national data on the co-occurrence of current DSM-IV nicotine dependence and other psychiatric disorders by sex and to estimate the burden of all US tobacco consumption carried by nicotine-dependent and psychiatrically ill individuals.

Design  Face-to-face interviews.

Setting  The United States.

Participants  Household and group-quarters adults (N = 43 093).

Main Outcome Measures  Prevalence and comorbidity of current nicotine dependence and Axis I and II disorders and the percentage of cigarettes consumed in the United States among psychiatrically vulnerable subgroups.

Results  Among US adults, 12.8% (95% confidence interval, 12.0-13.6) were nicotine dependent. Associations between nicotine dependence and specific Axis I and II disorders were all strong and statistically significant (P<.05) in the total population and among men and women. Nicotine-dependent individuals made up only 12.8% (95% confidence interval, 12.0-13.6) of the population yet consumed 57.5% of all cigarettes smoked in the United States. Nicotine-dependent individuals with a comorbid psychiatric disorder made up 7.1% (95% confidence interval, 6.6-7.6) of the population yet consumed 34.2% of all cigarettes smoked in the United States.

Conclusions  Nicotine-dependent and psychiatrically ill individuals consume about 70% of all cigarettes smoked in the United States. The results of this study highlight the importance of focusing smoking cessation efforts on individuals who are nicotine dependent, individuals who have psychiatric disorders, and individuals who have comorbid nicotine dependence and other psychiatric disorders. Further, awareness of industry segmentation strategies can improve smoking cessation efforts of clinicians and other health professionals among all smokers and especially among the most vulnerable.

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