Neurobiology of Wisdom: A Literature Overview | Genetics and Genomics | JAMA Psychiatry | JAMA Network
[Skip to Navigation]
Access to paid content on this site is currently suspended due to excessive activity being detected from your IP address 34.226.234.102. Please contact the publisher to request reinstatement.
1.
Aquinas  T Summa contra Gentiles.  Notre Dame, IN University of Notre Dame Press1991;
2.
Takahashi  M Toward a culturally inclusive understanding of wisdom: historical roots in the East and West.  Int J Aging Hum Dev 2000;51 (3) 217- 230PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
3.
 Webster's Encyclopedic Dictionary of the English Language.  New York, NY Lexicon Publications1990;
4.
Jeste  DVVahia  I Comparison of the conceptualization of wisdom in ancient Indian literature with modern views: focus on the Bhagavad Gita.  Psychiatry 2008;71 (3) 197- 209PubMedGoogle Scholar
5.
Takahashi  MOverton  WF Cultural foundations of wisdom: an integrated developmental approach. Sternberg  RJJordan  J A Handbook of Wisdom Psychological Perspectives. New York, NY Cambridge University Press2005;32- 60Google Scholar
6.
Birren  JESvensson  CM Wisdom in history. Sternberg  RJJordan  J A Handbook of Wisdom Psychological Perspectives. New York, NY Cambridge University Press2005;3- 31Google Scholar
7.
Brugman  GM Wisdom and Aging.  Amsterdam, Netherlands Elsevier2006;
8.
Ardelt  M Wisdom as expert knowledge system: a critical review of a contemporary operationalization of an ancient concept.  Hum Dev 2004;47 (5) 257- 285Google ScholarCrossref
9.
Zola-Morgan  S Localization of brain function: the legacy of Franz Joseph Gall (1758-1828).  Annu Rev Neurosci 1995;18359- 383PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
10.
Rosel  N Clarification and application of Erik Erikson's eighth stage of man.  Int J Aging Hum Dev 1988;27 (1) 11- 23PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
11.
Baltes  PBSmith  JStaudinger  UM Wisdom and successful aging.  Nebr Symp Motiv 1991;39123- 167PubMedGoogle Scholar
12.
Clayton  V Wisdom and intelligence: the nature and function of knowledge in the later years.  Int J Aging Hum Dev 1982;15 (4) 315- 321PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
13.
Sternberg  RJ Wisdom: Its Nature, Origins, and Development.  New York, NY Cambridge University Press1990;
14.
Ardelt  M Empirical assessment of a three-dimensional wisdom scale.  Res Aging 2003;25 (3) 275- 324Google ScholarCrossref
15.
Vaillant  GE Mental health.  Am J Psychiatry 2003;160 (8) 1373- 1384PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
16.
Tucker  PMPfefferbaum  BNorth  CSKent  ABurgin  CEParker  DEHossain  AJeon-Slaughter  HTrautman  RP Physiologic reactivity despite emotional resilience several years after direct exposure to terrorism.  Am J Psychiatry 2007;164 (2) 230- 235PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
17.
Connor  KMDavidson  JR Development of a new resilience scale: the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC).  Depress Anxiety 2003;18 (2) 76- 82PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
18.
Charney  DS Psychobiological mechanisms of resilience and vulnerability: implications for successful adaptation to extreme stress.  Am J Psychiatry 2004;161 (2) 195- 216PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
19.
Blazer  DG Successful aging.  Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 2006;14 (1) 2- 5PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
20.
Vaillant  GE Does Wisdom Increase With Age? Aging Well: Surprising Guideposts to a Happier Life From the Landmark Harvard Study of Adult Development.  Boston, MA Little, Brown and Co2002;249- 257
21.
Brugman  GM Wisdom and aging. Birren  JESchaie  KW Handbook of the Psychology of Aging. 6th ed. Burlington, MA Elsevier Academic Press2005;445- 469Google Scholar
22.
Jason  LAReichler  AKing  CMadsen  DCamacho  JMarchese  W The measurement of wisdom: a preliminary report.  J Community Psychol 2001;29 (5) 585- 598Google ScholarCrossref
23.
Hall  SS The older-and-wiser hypothesis.  New York Times. May6 2007;http://www.nytimes.com/2007/05/06/magazine/06Wisdom-t.html. Accessed January 6, 2009Google Scholar
24.
Hergott  LJ A piece of my mind. Playing the Moonlight Sonata from memory: celebrating the wonders of our difficult life.  JAMA 2002;288 (20) 2516- 2517PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
25.
Keeley  D Rigorous assessment of palliative care revisited: wisdom and compassion are needed when evidence is lacking.  BMJ 1999;319 (7223) 1447- 1448PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
26.
Daniele  F First International Conference between West and East—Leonardo and Lao-Tze: Western science meets Eastern wisdom. Experiences of scientists and intellectuals for the creation of a new paradigm of modern science.  Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2008;5 (1) 51- 54PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
27.
Nemiroff  GH Reconstructing Education: Toward a Pedagogy of Critical Humanism.  New York, NY Bergin and Garvey1992;
28.
Glover  RJ Perspectives on aging: issues affecting the latter part of the life cycle.  Educ Gerontol 1998;24 (4) 325- 331Google ScholarCrossref
29.
Brown  SCGreene  JA The Wisdom Development Scale: translating the conceptual to the concrete.  J Coll Student Dev 2008;47 (1) 1- 19Google ScholarCrossref
30.
Baltes  PBStaudinger  UM Wisdom: a metaheuristic (pragmatic) to orchestrate mind and virtue toward excellence.  Am Psychol 2000;55 (1) 122- 136PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
31.
Vaillant  GEMukamal  K Successful aging.  Am J Psychiatry 2001;158 (6) 839- 847PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
32.
Eisenberg  N Empathy-related responding and prosocial behaviour.  Novartis Found Symp 2007;27871- 80PubMedGoogle Scholar
33.
de Waal  FB Putting the altruism back into altruism: the evolution of empathy.  Annu Rev Psychol 2008;59279- 300PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
34.
di Pellegrino  GFadiga  LFogassi  LGallese  VRizzolatti  G Understanding motor events: a neurophysiological study.  Exp Brain Res 1992;91 (1) 176- 180PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
35.
Craighero  LMetta  GSandini  GFadiga  L The mirror-neurons system: data and models.  Prog Brain Res 2007;16439- 59PubMedGoogle Scholar
36.
Decety  JJackson  PL The functional architecture of human empathy.  Behav Cogn Neurosci Rev 2004;3 (2) 71- 100PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
37.
Pfeifer  JHIacoboni  MMazziotta  JCDapretto  M Mirroring others' emotions relates to empathy and interpersonal competence in children.  Neuroimage 2008;39 (4) 2076- 2085PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
38.
Perner  JLang  B Development of theory of mind and executive control.  Trends Cogn Sci 1999;3 (9) 337- 344PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
39.
Fletcher  PCHappe  FFrith  UBaker  SCDolan  RJFrackowiak  RSFrith  CD Other minds in the brain: a functional imaging study of “theory of mind” in story comprehension.  Cognition 1995;57 (2) 109- 128PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
40.
Gallagher  HLHappé  FBrunswick  NFletcher  PCFrith  CDFrith  CD Reading the mind in cartoons and stories: an fMRI study of ‘theory of mind’ in verbal and nonverbal tasks.  Neuropsychologia 2000;38 (1) 11- 21PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
41.
Goel  VGrafman  JSadato  NHallett  M Modeling other minds.  Neuroreport 1995;6 (13) 1741- 1746PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
42.
Brunet  ESarfati  YHardy-Bayle  MCDecety  JA PET investigation of the attribution of intentions with a nonverbal task.  Neuroimage 2000;11 (2) 157- 166PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
43.
Seitz  RJSchäfer  RScherfeld  DFriederichs  SPopp  KWittsack  HJAzari  NPFranz  M Valuating other people's emotional face expression: a combined functional magnetic resonance imaging and electroencephalography study.  Neuroscience 2008;152 (3) 713- 722PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
44.
Seitz  RJNickel  JAzari  NP Functional modularity of the medial prefrontal cortex: involvement in human empathy.  Neuropsychology 2006;20 (6) 743- 751PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
45.
Farrow  TFZheng  YWilkinson  IDSpence  SADeakin  JFTarrier  NGriffiths  PDWoodruff  PW Investigating the functional anatomy of empathy and forgiveness.  Neuroreport 2001;12 (11) 2433- 2438PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
46.
Shamay-Tsoory  SGTomer  RBerger  BDAharon-Peretz  J Characterization of empathy deficits following prefrontal brain damage: the role of the right ventromedial prefrontal cortex.  J Cogn Neurosci 2003;15 (3) 324- 337PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
47.
Lawrence  EJShaw  PGiampietro  VPSurguladze  SBrammer  MJDavid  AS The role of ‘shared representations’ in social perception and empathy: an fMRI study.  Neuroimage 2006;29 (4) 1173- 1184PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
48.
De Dreu  CKWeingart  LRKwon  S Influence of social motives on integrative negotiation: a meta-analytic review and test of two theories.  J Pers Soc Psychol 2000;78 (5) 889- 905PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
49.
Rilling  JGutman  DZeh  TPagnoni  GBerns  GKilts  C A neural basis for social cooperation.  Neuron 2002;35 (2) 395- 405PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
50.
Decety  JJackson  PLSommerville  JAChaminade  TMeltzoff  AN The neural bases of cooperation and competition: an fMRI investigation.  Neuroimage 2004;23 (2) 744- 751PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
51.
Singer  TKiebel  SJWinston  JSDolan  RJFrith  CD Brain responses to the acquired moral status of faces.  Neuron 2004;41 (4) 653- 662PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
52.
de Quervain  DJFischbacher  UTreyer  VSchellhammer  MSchnyder  UBuck  AFehr  E The neural basis of altruistic punishment.  Science 2004;305 (5688) 1254- 1258PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
53.
Rilling  JKSanfey  AGAronson  JANystrom  LECohen  JD Opposing BOLD responses to reciprocated and unreciprocated altruism in putative reward pathways.  Neuroreport 2004;15 (16) 2539- 2543PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
54.
Rilling  JKGlenn  ALJairam  MRPagnoni  GGoldsmith  DRElfenbein  HALilienfeld  SO Neural correlates of social cooperation and non-cooperation as a function of psychopathy.  Biol Psychiatry 2007;61 (11) 1260- 1271PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
55.
Lehmann  LKeller  L The evolution of cooperation and altruism—a general framework and a classification of models.  J Evol Biol 2006;19 (5) 1365- 1376PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
56.
Harbaugh  WTMayr  UBurghart  DR Neural responses to taxation and voluntary giving reveal motives for charitable donations.  Science 2007;316 (5831) 1622- 1625PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
57.
Moll  JKrueger  FZahn  RPardini  MOliveira-Souza  RGrafman  J Human fronto-mesolimbic networks guide decisions about charitable donation.  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2006;103 (42) 15623- 15628PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
58.
Hur  YMRushton  JP Genetic and environmental contributions to prosocial behaviour in 2- to 9-year-old South Korean twins.  Biol Lett 2007;3 (6) 664- 666PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
59.
Rushton  JP Genetic and environmental contributions to pro-social attitudes: a twin study of social responsibility.  Proc Biol Sci 2004;271 (1557) 2583- 2585PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
60.
Rushton  JPFulker  DWNeale  MCNias  DKEysenck  HJ Altruism and aggression: the heritability of individual differences.  J Pers Soc Psychol 1986;50 (6) 1192- 1198PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
61.
Bachner-Melman  RGritsenko  INemanov  LZohar  AHDina  CEbstein  RP Dopaminergic polymorphisms associated with self-report measures of human altruism: a fresh phenotype for the dopamine D4 receptor.  Mol Psychiatry 2005;10 (4) 333- 335PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
62.
Reeves  SJMehta  MAMontgomery  AJAmiras  DEgerton  AHoward  RJGrasby  PM Striatal dopamine (D2) receptor availability predicts socially desirable responding.  Neuroimage 2007;34 (4) 1782- 1789PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
63.
Young  SESmolen  AHewitt  JKHaberstick  BCStallings  MCCorley  RPCrowley  TJ Interaction between MAO-A genotype and maltreatment in the risk for conduct disorder: failure to confirm in adolescent patients.  Am J Psychiatry 2006;163 (6) 1019- 1025PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
64.
Wood  RMRilling  JKSanfey  AGBhagwager  ZRogers  RD Effects of tryptophan depletion on the performance of an iterated Prisoner's Dilemma game in healthy adults.  Neuropsychopharmacology 2006;31 (5) 1075- 1084PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
65.
Knafo  AIsrael  SDarvasi  ABachner-Melman  RUzefovsky  FCohen  LFeldman  ELerer  ELaiba  ERaz  YNemanov  LGritsenko  IDina  CAgam  GDean  BBornstein  GEbstein  RP Individual differences in allocation of funds in the dictator game associated with length of the arginine vasopressin 1a receptor RS3 promoter region and correlation between RS3 length and hippocampal mRNA.  Genes Brain Behav 2008;7 (3) 266- 275PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
66.
Jacob  SBrune  CWCarter  CSLeventhal  BLLord  CCook  EH  Jr Association of the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) in Caucasian children and adolescents with autism.  Neurosci Lett 2007;417 (1) 6- 9PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
67.
Faraone  SVDoyle  AEMick  EBiederman  J Meta-analysis of the association between the 7-repeat allele of the dopamine D(4) receptor gene and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.  Am J Psychiatry 2001;158 (7) 1052- 1057PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
68.
Cornish  KMManly  TSavage  RSwanson  JMorisano  DButler  NGrant  CCross  GBentley  LHollis  CP Association of the dopamine transporter (DAT1) 10/10-repeat genotype with ADHD symptoms and response inhibition in a general population sample.  Mol Psychiatry 2005;10 (7) 686- 698PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
69.
Eisenberg  JMei-Tal  GSteinberg  ATartakovsky  EZohar  AGritsenko  INemanov  LEbstein  RP Haplotype relative risk study of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): association of the high-enzyme activity Val allele with ADHD impulsive-hyperactive phenotype.  Am J Med Genet 1999;88 (5) 497- 502PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
70.
Drabant  EMHariri  ARMeyer-Lindenberg  AMunoz  KEMattay  VSKolachana  BSEgan  MFWeinberger  DR Catechol O-methyltransferase val158met genotype and neural mechanisms related to affective arousal and regulation.  Arch Gen Psychiatry 2006;63 (12) 1396- 1406PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
71.
Nomura  MNomura  Y Psychological, neuroimaging, and biochemical studies on functional association between impulsive behavior and the 5-HT2A receptor gene polymorphism in humans.  Ann N Y Acad Sci 2006;1086134- 143PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
72.
Frankle  WGLombardo  INew  ASGoodman  MTalbot  PSHuang  YHwang  DRSlifstein  MCurry  SAbi-Dargham  ALaruelle  MSiever  LJ Brain serotonin transporter distribution in subjects with impulsive aggressivity: a positron emission study with [11C]McN 5652.  Am J Psychiatry 2005;162 (5) 915- 923PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
73.
Meyer-Lindenberg  ABuckholtz  JWKolachana  BHariri  APezawas  LBlasi  GWabnitz  AHonea  RVerchinski  BCallicott  JHEgan  MMattay  VWeinberger  DR Neural mechanisms of genetic risk for impulsivity and violence in humans.  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2006;103 (16) 6269- 6274PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
74.
Passamonti  LFera  FMagariello  ACerasa  AGioia  MCMuglia  MNicoletti  GGallo  OProvinciali  LQuattrone  A Monoamine oxidase-a genetic variations influence brain activity associated with inhibitory control: new insight into the neural correlates of impulsivity.  Biol Psychiatry 2006;59 (4) 334- 340PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
75.
Hariri  ARMattay  VSTessitore  AKolachana  BFera  FGoldman  DEgan  MFWeinberger  DR Serotonin transporter genetic variation and the response of the human amygdala.  Science 2002;297 (5580) 400- 403PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
76.
Heinz  ABraus  DFSmolka  MNWrase  JPuls  IHermann  DKlein  SGrüsser  SMFlor  HSchumann  GMann  KBüchel  C Amygdala-prefrontal coupling depends on a genetic variation of the serotonin transporter.  Nat Neurosci 2005;8 (1) 20- 21PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
77.
Hariri  ARDrabant  EMMunoz  KEKolachana  BSMattay  VSEgan  MFWeinberger  DR A susceptibility gene for affective disorders and the response of the human amygdala.  Arch Gen Psychiatry 2005;62 (2) 146- 152PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
78.
Canli  TOmura  KHaas  BWFallgatter  AConstable  RTLesch  KP Beyond affect: a role for genetic variation of the serotonin transporter in neural activation during a cognitive attention task.  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2005;102 (34) 12224- 12229PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
79.
Pezawas  LMeyer-Lindenberg  ADrabant  EMVerchinski  BAMunoz  KEKolachana  BSEgan  MFMattay  VSHariri  ARWeinberger  DR 5-HTTLPR polymorphism impacts human cingulate-amygdala interactions: a genetic susceptibility mechanism for depression.  Nat Neurosci 2005;8 (6) 828- 834PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
80.
David  SPMurthy  NVRabiner  EAMunafó  MRJohnstone  ECJacob  RWalton  RTGrasby  PM A functional genetic variation of the serotonin (5-HT) transporter affects 5-HT1A receptor binding in humans.  J Neurosci 2005;25 (10) 2586- 2590PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
81.
Caspi  ASugden  KMoffitt  TETaylor  ACraig  IWHarrington  HMcClay  JMill  JMartin  JBraithwaite  APoulton  R Influence of life stress on depression: moderation by a polymorphism in the 5HTT gene.  Science 2003;301 (5631) 386- 389PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
82.
Canli  TQiu  MOmura  KCongdon  EHaas  BWAmin  ZHerrmann  MJConstable  RTLesch  KP Neural correlates of epigenesis.  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2006;103 (43) 16033- 16038PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
83.
Gutknecht  LJacob  CStrobel  AKriegebaum  CMuller  JZeng  YMarkert  CEscher  AWendland  JReif  AMossner  RGross  CBrocke  BLesch  KP Tryptophan hydroxylase-2 gene variation influences personality traits and disorders related to emotional dysregulation.  Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 2007;10 (3) 309- 320PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
84.
Canli  TCongdon  EGutknecht  LConstable  RTLesch  KP Amygdala responsiveness is modulated by tryptophan hydroxylase-2 gene variation.  J Neural Transm 2005;112 (11) 1479- 1485PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
85.
Herrmann  MJHuter  TMuller  FMuhlberger  APauli  PReif  ARenner  TCanli  TFallgatter  AJLesch  KP Additive effects of serotonin transporter and tryptophan hydroxylase-2 gene variation on emotional processing.  Cereb Cortex 2007;17 (5) 1160- 1163PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
86.
Neumeister  ACharney  DSBelfer  IGeraci  MHolmes  CSharabi  YAlim  TBonne  OLuckenbaugh  DAManji  HGoldman  DGoldstein  DS Sympathoneural and adrenomedullary functional effects of alpha2C-adrenoreceptor gene polymorphism in healthy humans.  Pharmacogenet Genomics 2005;15 (3) 143- 149PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
87.
Morgan  CA  IIIWang  SRasmusson  AHazlett  GAnderson  GCharney  DS Relationship among plasma cortisol, catecholamines, neuropeptide Y, and human performance during exposure to uncontrollable stress.  Psychosom Med 2001;63 (3) 412- 422PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
88.
Baltes  PBSmith  JStaudinger  UM Wisdom and successful aging. Sonderegger  T Nebraska Symposium on Motivation. Lincoln University of Nebraska Press1992;123- 167Google Scholar
89.
Ernst  MPaulus  MP Neurobiology of decision making: a selective review from a neurocognitive and clinical perspective.  Biol Psychiatry 2005;58 (8) 597- 604PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
90.
Montague  PRBerns  GS Neural economics and the biological substrates of valuation.  Neuron 2002;36 (2) 265- 284PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
91.
Osbeck  LMRobinson  DN Philosophical theories of wisdom. Sternberg  RJJordan  J A Handbook of Wisdom Psychological Perspectives. New York, NY Cambridge University Press2005;3- 31Google Scholar
92.
McClure  SMLaibson  DILoewenstein  GCohen  JD Separate neural systems value immediate and delayed monetary rewards.  Science 2004;306 (5695) 503- 507PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
93.
Boettiger  CAMitchell  JMTavares  VCRobertson  MJoslyn  GD'Esposito  MFields  HL Immediate reward bias in humans: fronto-parietal networks and a role for the catechol-O-methyltransferase 158(Val/Val) genotype.  J Neurosci 2007;27 (52) 14383- 14391PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
94.
Berlin  HARolls  ETKischka  U Impulsivity, time perception, emotion and reinforcement sensitivity in patients with orbitofrontal cortex lesions.  Brain 2004;127 (pt 5) 1108- 1126PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
95.
Eshel  NNelson  EEBlair  RJPine  DSErnst  M Neural substrates of choice selection in adults and adolescents: development of the ventrolateral prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices.  Neuropsychologia 2007;45 (6) 1270- 1279PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
96.
Robertson  DSnarey  JOusley  OHarenski  KDuBois  BFGilkey  RKilts  C The neural processing of moral sensitivity to issues of justice and care.  Neuropsychologia 2007;45 (4) 755- 766PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
97.
Luo  QNakic  MWheatley  TRichell  RMarton  ABlair  RJ The neural basis of implicit moral attitude—an IAT study using event-related fMRI.  Neuroimage 2006;30 (4) 1449- 1457PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
98.
Greene  JDSommerville  RBNystrom  LEDarley  JMCohen  JD An fMRI investigation of emotional engagement in moral judgment.  Science 2001;293 (5537) 2105- 2108PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
99.
Heekeren  HRWartenburger  ISchmidt  HSchwintowski  HPVillringer  A An fMRI study of simple ethical decision-making.  Neuroreport 2003;14 (9) 1215- 1219PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
100.
Pujol  JReixach  JHarrison  BJTimoneda-Gallart  CVilanova  JCPerez-Alvarez  F Posterior cingulate activation during moral dilemma in adolescents.  Hum Brain Mapp 2008;29 (8) 910- 921PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
101.
Greene  JDNystrom  LEEngell  ADDarley  JMCohen  JD The neural bases of cognitive conflict and control in moral judgment.  Neuron 2004;44 (2) 389- 400PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
102.
Koenigs  MYoung  LAdolphs  RTranel  DCushman  FHauser  MDamasio  A Damage to the prefrontal cortex increases utilitarian moral judgements.  Nature 2007;446 (7138) 908- 911PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
103.
Green  MFPenn  DLBentall  RCarpenter  WTGaebel  WGur  RCKring  AMPark  SSilverstein  SMHeinssen  R Social cognition in schizophrenia: an NIMH workshop on definitions, assessment, and research opportunities.  Schizophr Bull 2008;34 (6) 1211- 1220PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
104.
Abu-Akel  A The neurochemical hypothesis of 'theory of mind’.  Med Hypotheses 2003;60 (3) 382- 386PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
105.
Vaillant  G Spiritual Evolution: A Scientific Defense of Faith.  New York, NY Broadway2008;
106.
Congdon  ECanli  T The endophenotype of impulsivity: reaching consilience through behavioral, genetic, and neuroimaging approaches.  Behav Cogn Neurosci Rev 2005;4 (4) 262- 281PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
107.
Aron  ARFletcher  PCBullmore  ETSahakian  BJRobbins  TW Stop-signal inhibition disrupted by damage to right inferior frontal gyrus in humans.  Nat Neurosci 2003;6 (2) 115- 116PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
108.
Horn  NRDolan  MElliott  RDeakin  JFWoodruff  PW Response inhibition and impulsivity: an fMRI study.  Neuropsychologia 2003;41 (14) 1959- 1966PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
109.
Phan  KLFitzgerald  DANathan  PJMoore  GJUhde  TWTancer  ME Neural substrates for voluntary suppression of negative affect: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.  Biol Psychiatry 2005;57 (3) 210- 219PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
110.
Goldin  PRMcRae  KRamel  WGross  JJ The neural bases of emotion regulation: reappraisal and suppression of negative emotion.  Biol Psychiatry 2008;63 (6) 577- 586PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
111.
Ochsner  KNBunge  SAGross  JJGabrieli  JD Rethinking feelings: an FMRI study of the cognitive regulation of emotion.  J Cogn Neurosci 2002;14 (8) 1215- 1229PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
112.
Cooney  REJoormann  JAtlas  LYEugène  FGotlib  IH Remembering the good times: neural correlates of affect regulation.  Neuroreport 2007;18 (17) 1771- 1774PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
113.
Kim  SHHamann  S Neural correlates of positive and negative emotion regulation.  J Cogn Neurosci 2007;19 (5) 776- 798PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
114.
Lieberman  MDEisenberger  NICrockett  MJTom  SMPfeifer  JHWay  BM Putting feelings into words: affect labeling disrupts amygdala activity in response to affective stimuli.  Psychol Sci 2007;18 (5) 421- 428PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
115.
Hariri  ARBookheimer  SYMazziotta  JC Modulating emotional responses: effects of a neocortical network on the limbic system.  Neuroreport 2000;11 (1) 43- 48PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
116.
Pedersen  NLPlomin  RMcClearn  GEFriberg  L Neuroticism, extraversion, and related traits in adult twins reared apart and reared together.  J Pers Soc Psychol 1988;55 (6) 950- 957PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
117.
Seroczynski  ADBergeman  CSCoccaro  EF Etiology of the impulsivity/aggression relationship: genes or environment?  Psychiatry Res 1999;86 (1) 41- 57PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
118.
Uddin  LQIacoboni  MLange  CKeenan  JP The self and social cognition: the role of cortical midline structures and mirror neurons.  Trends Cogn Sci 2007;11 (4) 153- 157PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
119.
Fossati  PHevenor  SJGraham  SJGrady  CKeightley  MLCraik  FMayberg  H In search of the emotional self: an FMRI study using positive and negative emotional words.  Am J Psychiatry 2003;160 (11) 1938- 1945PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
120.
Gilboa  A Autobiographical and episodic memory—one and the same? Evidence from prefrontal activation in neuroimaging studies.  Neuropsychologia 2004;42 (10) 1336- 1349PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
121.
Samson  DApperly  IAKathirgamanathan  UHumphreys  GW Seeing it my way: a case of a selective deficit in inhibiting self-perspective.  Brain 2005;128 (pt 5) 1102- 1111PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
122.
Amodio  DMHarmon-Jones  EDevine  PGCurtin  JJHartley  SLCovert  AE Neural signals for the detection of unintentional race bias.  Psychol Sci 2004;15 (2) 88- 93PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
123.
Cunningham  WAJohnson  MKRaye  CLChris  GJGore  JCBanaji  MR Separable neural components in the processing of black and white faces.  Psychol Sci 2004;15 (12) 806- 813PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
124.
Samson  DApperly  IAHumphreys  GW Error analyses reveal contrasting deficits in “theory of mind”: neuropsychological evidence from a 3-option false belief task.  Neuropsychologia 2007;45 (11) 2561- 2569PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
125.
Lieberman  MD Social cognitive neuroscience: a review of core processes.  Annu Rev Psychol 2007;58259- 289PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
126.
Krain  ALWilson  AMArbuckle  RCastellanos  FXMilham  MP Distinct neural mechanisms of risk and ambiguity: a meta-analysis of decision-making.  Neuroimage 2006;32 (1) 477- 484PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
127.
Huettel  SAStowe  CJGordon  EMWarner  BTPlatt  ML Neural signatures of economic preferences for risk and ambiguity.  Neuron 2006;49 (5) 765- 775PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
128.
Simmons  AStein  MBMatthews  SCFeinstein  JSPaulus  MP Affective ambiguity for a group recruits ventromedial prefrontal cortex.  Neuroimage 2006;29 (2) 655- 661PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
129.
Zelazo  PDMuller  U Executive function in typical and atypical development. Goswami  U Handbook of Childhood Cognitive Development. Oxford, England Blackwell2002;445- 489Google Scholar
130.
Uttal  WR A credo for a revitalized behaviorism: characteristics and emerging principles.  Behav Processes 2001;54 (1-3) 5- 10PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
131.
Jung  REHaier  RJ The Parieto-Frontal Integration Theory (P-FIT) of intelligence: converging neuroimaging evidence.  Behav Brain Sci 2007;30 (2) 135- 154PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
132.
Sternberg  RJ A systems model of leadership: WICS.  Am Psychol 2007;62 (1) 34- 42PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
133.
Baltes  PBStaudinger  UMaercker  ASmith  J People nominated as wise: a comparative study of wisdom related knowledge.  Psychol Aging 1995;10 (2) 155- 166PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
134.
Staudinger  UMBaltes  PB Interactive minds: a facilitative setting for wisdom-related performance.  J Pers Soc Psychol 1996;71 (4) 746- 762Google ScholarCrossref
135.
Smith  JBaltes  PB Profiles of psychological functioning in the old and oldest old.  Psychol Aging 1997;12 (3) 458- 472PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
136.
Mather  MCartensen  LL Aging and motivated cognition: the positivity effect in attention and memory.  Trends Cogn Sci 2005;9 (10) 496- 502PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
137.
Rankin  KPSantos-Modesitt  WKramer  JHPavlic  DBeckman  VMiller  BL Spontaneous social behaviors discriminate behavioral dementias from psychiatric disorders and other dementias.  J Clin Psychiatry 2008;69 (1) 60- 73PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
138.
Haas  LF Phineas Gage and the science of brain localisation.  J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2001;71 (6) 761PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
Original Article
April 2009

Neurobiology of Wisdom: A Literature Overview

Author Affiliations

Author Affiliations: Department of Psychiatry and Sam and Rose Stein Institute for Research on Aging, University of California, San Diego (Drs Meeks and Jeste); and VA San Diego Healthcare System (Dr Jeste).

Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2009;66(4):355-365. doi:10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2009.8
Abstract

Context  Wisdom is a unique psychological trait noted since antiquity, long discussed in humanities disciplines, recently operationalized by psychology and sociology researchers, but largely unexamined in psychiatry or biology.

Objective  To discuss recent neurobiological studies related to subcomponents of wisdom identified from several published definitions/descriptions of wisdom by clinical investigators in the field, ie, prosocial attitudes/behaviors, social decision making/pragmatic knowledge of life, emotional homeostasis, reflection/self-understanding, value relativism/tolerance, and acknowledgment of and dealing effectively with uncertainty.

Data Sources  Literature focusing primarily on neuroimaging/brain localization and secondarily on neurotransmitters, including their genetic determinants.

Study Selection  Studies involving functional neuroimaging or neurotransmitter functioning, examining human (rather than animal) subjects, and identified via a PubMed search using keywords from any of the 6 proposed subcomponents of wisdom were included.

Data Extraction  Studies were reviewed by both of us, and data considered to be potentially relevant to the neurobiology of wisdom were extracted.

Data Synthesis  Functional neuroimaging permits exploration of neural correlates of complex psychological attributes such as those proposed to comprise wisdom. The prefrontal cortex figures prominently in several wisdom subcomponents (eg, emotional regulation, decision making, value relativism), primarily via top-down regulation of limbic and striatal regions. The lateral prefrontal cortex facilitates calculated, reason-based decision making, whereas the medial prefrontal cortex is implicated in emotional valence and prosocial attitudes/behaviors. Reward neurocircuitry (ventral striatum, nucleus accumbens) also appears important for promoting prosocial attitudes/behaviors. Monoaminergic activity (especially dopaminergic and serotonergic), influenced by several genetic polymorphisms, is critical to certain subcomponents of wisdom such as emotional regulation (including impulse control), decision making, and prosocial behaviors.

Conclusions  We have proposed a speculative model of the neurobiology of wisdom involving frontostriatal and frontolimbic circuits and monoaminergic pathways. Wisdom may involve optimal balance between functions of phylogenetically more primitive brain regions (limbic system) and newer ones (prefrontal cortex). Limitations of the putative model are stressed. It is hoped that this review will stimulate further research in characterization, assessment, neurobiology, and interventions related to wisdom.

×