Author Affiliations: Department of Surgery, University of Utah, Salt Lake City (Dr Cochran); Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland (Dr Freischlag); and Department of Surgery, SUNY Health Science Center at Syracuse, Syracuse, New York (Dr Numann).
Nearly half of all medical students now in the United States are women. The number of women who are general surgeons has consistently increased during the past 30 years, from 3.4% in 1980 to 8.8% in 1995 and 15.6% in 2007.1 While 10% of general surgery residents were women in 1980, this number increased to 21% by 1995 and stood at 36% in 2011.2,3
Cochran A, Freischlag JA, Numann P. Women, Surgery, and Leadership: Where We Have Been, Where We Are, Where We Are Going. JAMA Surg. 2013;148(4):312–313. doi:10.1001/jamasurg.2013.1706
Coronavirus Resource Center
Customize your JAMA Network experience by selecting one or more topics from the list below.
Create a personal account or sign in to: