THE STRAITLACED world of surgery can often prove stultifying to an iconoclastic individual. Surgeons who view things differently are too easily labeled rebels or troublemakers by their professional peers. However, sometimes it takes the visionary surgeon, the round peg in the square hole, to actually change the world of medical science. Unconventional in their thoughts and unyielding in their demands, the list of "misfit" hero surgeons grows from century to century. From Andreas Vesalius to Ignaz Semmelweis to Joseph Lister, independent thinkers have helped to change basic surgical concepts.
Rutkow IM. Arthur Emanuel Hertzler (1870-1946). Arch Surg. 2002;137(3):364. doi:10.1001/archsurg.137.3.364
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