Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) accounts for less than 5% of all thyroid cancers; it differs from the more common papillary thyroid cancer and follicular thyroid cancer, which collectively are called differentiated thyroid cancer. Medullary TC derives from C cells instead of follicular cells and is considered a neuroendocrine tumor. Although most MTC grows slowly, the prognosis of patients with MTC is worse than that of patients with papillary thyroid cancer or follicular thyroid cancer. A high proportion of MTC is associated with germline RET (rearranged during transfection) oncogene mutation as part of the multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 syndrome.1
Duh Q, Gosnell JE. Improvement of TNM Staging for Medullary Thyroid Cancer. JAMA Surg. 2017;152(9):876–877. doi:10.1001/jamasurg.2017.1695
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