The ability of health care practitioners to provide accurate data to patients and their families about clinical care of a disease state with regard to cure, complications, and recurrent disease is complex. Patients differ in terms of, for example, their age, sex, ethnicity, comorbidities, and social status, and diseases vary in terms of their extent, severity, and natural history. Therapies also have variable outcomes; those in the surgical domain often depend on factors such as operator and hospital volume, nursing ratios, and associated system characteristics.
Aggarwal R. Risk, Complexity, Decision Making, and Patient Care. JAMA Surg. Published online October 11, 2017. doi:10.1001/jamasurg.2017.3930
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