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Comment & Response
December 2018

On the Gender Identity of Breast Patients

Author Affiliations
  • 1Hansjörg Wyss Department of Plastic Surgery, New York University School of Medicine, New York
  • 2Division of Plastic Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle
JAMA Surg. 2018;153(12):1164. doi:10.1001/jamasurg.2018.3227

To the Editor: The article titled “Future Directions for Breast Reconstruction on the 20th Anniversary of the Women’s Health and Cancer Rights Act” by Offodile and Lee1 raises valid points about the variations in breast reconstruction preferences patients may have. However, one factor that may affect preferences has been rarely addressed in the literature: not all patients who receive cancer-based mastectomy or reconstruction are cisgender women. Any patient with breast tissue can develop breast cancer, regardless of their gender identity.

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