[Skip to Content]
Access to paid content on this site is currently suspended due to excessive activity being detected from your IP address Please contact the publisher to request reinstatement.
[Skip to Content Landing]
Views 642
Citations 0
Invited Commentary
May 29, 2019

Advanced Volumetric 3-Dimensional Visualization of Surgical Anatomy—Are We There Yet?

Author Affiliations
  • 1Surgery, Stanford University, Stanford, California
JAMA Surg. 2019;154(8):744-745. doi:10.1001/jamasurg.2019.1169

The concept of using computer-augmented radiographs to facilitate surgical planning began more than 30 years ago. One of the most common approaches to advanced visualization of surgical anatomy was volume rendering, a set of techniques for displaying 2-dimensional (2-D) projections of 3-dimensional (3-D) data.1 Historically, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were natural sources of rich, 3-D data for volume rendering research. Today, significant advances in the spatial resolution and efficiency of CT and MRI technology have greatly improved the ability to produce photorealistic, 3-D images of human anatomy.2 These advances have served as the driving force and foundation for an ever-growing body of research and advanced technologies geared toward full realization and broad implementation of computer-assisted imaging in surgery and surgical planning.3,4 Although volume rendering is still in wide use for advanced visualization science and industry applications, more recently, cinematic rendering has allowed for a more natural and physically accurate image with improved shape and depth perception.5

Limit 200 characters
Limit 25 characters
Conflicts of Interest Disclosure

Identify all potential conflicts of interest that might be relevant to your comment.

Conflicts of interest comprise financial interests, activities, and relationships within the past 3 years including but not limited to employment, affiliation, grants or funding, consultancies, honoraria or payment, speaker's bureaus, stock ownership or options, expert testimony, royalties, donation of medical equipment, or patents planned, pending, or issued.

Err on the side of full disclosure.

If you have no conflicts of interest, check "No potential conflicts of interest" in the box below. The information will be posted with your response.

Not all submitted comments are published. Please see our commenting policy for details.

Limit 140 characters
Limit 3600 characters or approximately 600 words