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Invited Commentary
October 16, 2019

Diversity and Inclusion—One Size Does Not Fit All

Author Affiliations
  • 1Department of Surgery, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison
JAMA Surg. 2020;155(1):30-31. doi:10.1001/jamasurg.2019.4082

In her groundbreaking 1989 paper, Kimberlé Crenshaw introduced the term intersectionality and defined the intersectional challenges for women of color as “greater than the sum of racism and sexism.”1(p140) She proposed that a single identity, such as sex, race, or ethnicity, cannot accurately define the experiences of a group of people and attempts to do so will particularly marginalize those who are at the intersection of overlapping identities. The concept has been expanded to include age, sexual orientation, gender identity, and socioeconomic class, among other identities.

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