In Reply We described1 the large proportion of non-White surgical residents who reported experiencing discrimination based on race, ethnicity, or religion, thereby highlighting the urgent need for improvements in diversity, equity, and inclusion within surgical training programs. As Amabile et al note, discrimination may also affect international medical graduates (IMGs), residents for whom English is a second language, and preliminary residents. We agree that these residents are likely at higher risk for experiencing discriminatory behaviors, and that it is important to recognize and support these (and all) vulnerable residents. Furthermore, we submit that xenophobia is fundamentally different from racism and merits its own investigation.
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Yuce TK, Bilimoria KY, Hu Y. Discrimination in US Surgical Training Programs—Reply. JAMA Surg. 2020;155(11):1084–1085. doi:10.1001/jamasurg.2020.3020
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