The preoperative clinic was introduced to assess the medical conditions of high-risk patients and provide information to anesthesiologists and surgeons to reduce last-minute cancellations. Poor physical fitness, malnutrition, sarcopenia, obesity, anxiety, depression, and harmful lifestyle habits (eg, smoking) are recognized as significant patient risk factors contributing to poor postoperative outcome but are not often assessed in standard preoperative clinics, let alone modified. Prehabilitation is a strategic intervention to improve functional reserve before major surgery. Prehabilitation entails a multidisciplinary, multimodal approach based on knowledge in exercise science and nutrition, beginning with an assessment of cardiopulmonary fitness, body composition, and psychological status and followed by a series of structured, personalized interventions that focus on optimizing aerobic fitness and muscle strength, enhancing lean body mass, and supporting emotional resilience.1
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Carli F, Baldini G, Feldman LS. Redesigning the Preoperative Clinic: From Risk Stratification to Risk Modification. JAMA Surg. Published online December 09, 2020. doi:10.1001/jamasurg.2020.5550
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