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Invited Commentary
July 7, 2021

Sex Differences in Milestones Achievement—An Issue of Learning or Assessment Bias?

Author Affiliations
  • 1Department of Surgery, University of California Los Angeles David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles
JAMA Surg. 2021;156(10):932. doi:10.1001/jamasurg.2021.3049

In 2013, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) affirmed its commitment to competency-based medical education and introduced semiannual, structured formative assessments using milestone assessments.1 Milestone achievements inform but do not determine high-stakes summative decisions on resident promotion and readiness for independent practice. Yet, as training paradigms shift to objective and competency-based assessment, some have raised concerns that assessments may be subject to biases, such as sex bias.2

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