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Invited Commentary
July 28, 2021

Recognizing Intersectionality—The Association of Gender, Gender Identity, Sexual Orientation, and Race With Social Experience

Author Affiliations
  • 1The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio
  • 2Bozeman, Montana
  • 3Web and Social Media Editor, JAMA Cardiology
JAMA Surg. 2021;156(10):953. doi:10.1001/jamasurg.2021.3201

In this issue of JAMA Surgery, Schlick et al1 characterize the gender discrimination and sexual harassment experienced by women vs men in surgical residency programs across the US. Although illuminating this mistreatment is undoubtedly important, there are 2 equally important topics that are missing from this work: (1) an analysis that fully encompasses the community of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer/questioning, intersex, and asexual/allied individuals as well as those with other gender identities (LGBTQIA+) when investigating sexual orientation and gender identity and (2) a consideration of the racial and ethnic identities of the participants.

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