THE TRAINING of surgeons has been one of the core missions of the Cleveland Clinic Foundation (CCF) since its founding in Cleveland, Ohio, in 1921. The genesis of the clinic came from 3 of its 4 founders—George Crile, MD, William Lower,—and Frank Bunts, MD, who experienced the efficiency of a collaborative group of specialists working together in the American Expeditionary Forces hospitals in France from 1917 to 1918. After returning to Cleveland, these 3 surgeons persuaded an internist, John Phillips, MD, who had also served in France, to join them in establishing CCF with the express purpose of providing "better care of the sick, investigation of their problems, and further education of those who serve."1(p21)
Henderson JM, Hahn JF. The Cleveland Clinic Foundation. Arch Surg. 2003;138(10):1044–1045. doi:10.1001/archsurg.138.10.1044
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