—The Klippel-Feil syndrome has three essential features: (1) the extreme shortening of the neck, the head appearing to be sunken between the shoulders; (2) limitation of motion of the head, and (3) low implantation of the hair, the scalp extending downward to the upper part of the back. There are usually other associated deformities, such as scoliosis, round back, kyphosis, spina bifida, etc. Smeesters1 has found fifteen cases reported in the literature and adds two more. It is obvious clinically that a malformation of the cervical spine exists. The anatomic explanation is found in a congenital fusion and lack of individualization of the cervical vertebrae, usually associated with a true spina bifida of this region.
Congenital Elevation of the Scapula.
—Delchef2 reviews all the known facts in reference to congenital elevation of the scapula, commonly known as Sprengel's deformity, although the condition had
OSGOOD RB, ALLISON N, SOUTTER R, et al. TWENTY-FOURTH REPORT OF PROGRESS IN ORTHOPEDIC SURGERY. Arch Surg. 1924;9(2):450–484. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1924.01120080218011
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