The knee joint has always held unusual interest for both the anatomist and the surgeon because of its peculiar structural anatomy and its susceptibility to pathologic processes. This is particularly true for the reflections of its synovial membrane and associated bursae, because these structures are so closely related to the lower end of the femur, which is often the seat of infection or trauma, and because the efficient treatment of infection in and about the knee joint depends in no small measure on these structural peculiarities. Anatomists have studied this region with great care; particularly is this true of Spalteholz, who injected the joint cavity and its bursae with gelatin after dissecting away the overlying soft parts. His work was later augmented by the researches of Murphy and, while their investigations were exceedingly comprehensive and very important, the actual anatomic relationships were somewhat distorted by their methods of procedure. In
COLP R, KLINGENSTEIN P. A ROENTGEN-RAY STUDY OF THE INJECTED KNEE JOINT. Arch Surg. 1925;11(5):660–673. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1925.01120170013002
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