The term "internal callus" is employed frequently by those who treat patients who have sustained fractures; this and other names are mentioned in textbooks. Blaisdell and Cowan described it in a series of experiments on kittens.1 The late Dr. Edward Hall Nichols conducted a series of experiments on animals to demonstrate the internal callus, which he showed to me shortly before his death, but I believe they have never been published. The experiments I have conducted were prompted by those of Dr. Nichols.
In the roentgenograms showing healing fractures one sees little if any, internal callus. It was absent in several series of experimental fractures of the humeri of cats, or was occasionally present in a rudimentary degree.2 In these fractures, of course, much deformity and overriding were unavoidably present, and all nature's effective efforts at healing were expended on the outside of the cortex beneath the periosteum.
ELY LW. THE INTERNAL CALLUS: AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY. Arch Surg. 1927;15(6):936–942. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1927.01130240109008
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