There are divergent opinions as to the need for the stage-operation in present day surgical procedures on the thyroid gland. The range of these views is wide; on the one hand are surgeons who advocate and practice multiple preliminary ligation and lobectomy for exophthalmic goiter in a large proportion of their cases in a manner similar to that generally practiced before the advent of iodine in the preparation of the patient for operation; on the other hand are those who scoff at this as a timid surgical measure and advocate its complete abandonment. Between these extremists are surgeons who recognize advantages in the stage-operation and advocate its use in a restricted group of cases. In view of the fact that only a few years ago the stage-operation was almost universally employed in surgical treatment for exophthalmic goiter, and that today there exists a wide difference of opinion concerning its need,
PEMBERTON JD. EXOPHTHALMIC GOITER: INDICATIONS FOR THE STAGE-OPERATION. Arch Surg. 1929;18(2):735–744. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1929.04420030129006
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