Defective function of the sphincter ani is associated with great inconvenience for the patient and for those about him. It is not surprising, therefore, that numerous operative procedures have been suggested for the purpose of making a more or less firm closure of the lower end of the rectum when the sphincteric action is not perfect. The methods which have been most widely applied are: torsion of the lower end of the rectum according to the method of Gersuny or the replacing of the defective sphincter by a ring formed from the fascia lata according to the method of Thiersch.
An important and general defect, however, is common to all these closures; their activity is limited by the elasticity of the tissues of which they are formed. Active dilatation and contraction under the control of voluntary impulses are also impossible, thus there is not sufficient elastic contraction of the lower
WREDEN RR. A METHOD OF RECONSTRUCTING A VOLUNTARY SPHINCTER ANI. Arch Surg. 1929;18(3):841–844. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1929.04420040073007
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