In 1822 Carson1 sounded the keynote to the surgical treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis when he said, "It has long been my opinion that if ever this disease is to be cured, and it is an event of which I am by no means disposed to despair, it must be accomplished by mechanical means, or in other words by a surgical operation." There have since been evolved, roughly speaking, two types of operative procedure in these cases. The first type includes extrapleural paravertebral thoracoplasty suggested by Brauer2 and performed by Friedrich in 1907, in which they advocated an extremely radical operation which carried with it a high mortality. However, the technic was soon modified by Wilms3 and Sauerbruch,4 but even to the present time it continues to carry many disappointing results, both in the immediate effects and later in the resultant spread of the disease in the
GALE JW, MIDDLETON WS. SCALENIOTOMY IN THE SURGICAL TREATMENT OF PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS. Arch Surg. 1931;23(1):38–46. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1931.01160070041003
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