—Braasch1 observed a number of cases in which the renal pelvis had an anomalous position and form and in some cases was the only clinical evidence of abnormality. When renal anomaly is characterized only by anomalous rotation, the degree of rotation may vary, and may be described by the terms rotation absent, incomplete, reverse and excessive. It does not always involve the entire kidney, but may be confined to one pole and may affect only a segment of the pelvis and the adjacent calices. Although the pelvis may be in the normal position, it is more often observed with either lateral or mesial displacement or with slight ptosis. It is usually situated on a level with the second lumbar vertebra. It may be slightly lower and is then distinguished from ectopic kidney by the fact that its blood vessels take origin at the usual level of the
SCHOLL AJ, JUDD ES, KEYSER LD, VERBRUGGE J, KUTZMANN AA. A REVIEW OF UROLOGIC SURGERY. Arch Surg. 1931;23(1):157–174. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1931.01160070160011
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