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Article
May 1934

SPINA BIFIDA AND CRANIUM BIFIDUM: A STUDY OF ONE HUNDRED AND THREE CASES

Author Affiliations

ST. LOUIS
Fellow in Neurologic Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine, 1931 and 1932.

Arch Surg. 1934;28(5):874-888. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1934.01170170069006
Abstract

Introduction

Review of Literature

Clinical Material

Analysis of Cases

Cases in which Operation was not Performed

Cases in which Operation was Performed

Indications for Operation

Method of Treatment

Preoperative Care

Operative Procedure

Postoperative Care

Follow-Up Results

Comment

Summary

INTRODUCTION  The problem of spina bifida has occupied the attention of surgeons for many years, and, in spite of a voluminous literature that has accumulated on the subject, fundamental differences of opinion still exist. Excellent contributions on the anatomy of spina bifida have been made by von Recklinghausen.1 Keiller2 and others;3 however, the underlying factors in the pathogenesis of this condition have not been determined. Many theories have been advanced, but convincing proof of any of them is still lacking. One of us (E. S.) has always felt that hyperactivity of the choroid plexuses in utero before the neural arches have completely closed was a probable cause of the

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