Two types of avulsion of the scalp, complete and incomplete, are generally recognized. Complete avulsion defines those cases in which part or all of the scalp is torn entirely free from its attachments. The incompletely avulsed scalp is left attached to some part of the head by a pedicle.
At present, complete avulsion is almost always exclusively the result of an industrial accident. It occurs chiefly in manufacturing plants where rapidly revolving shafts and wheels are used and more particularly where such moving parts are inadequately housed. The hair becomes caught in the whirling machine, and a sudden force, quickly transmitted, removes the scalp. Because of this mode of occurrence the accident is limited almost entirely to women. Avulsion of the scalp occurs frequently with farm machinery also; a few scalps have been lost by burning; in frontier days scalping by Indians was encountered, and other isolated and bizarre methods
BURNS EL. EPITHELIOMA FOLLOWING AVULSION OF THE SCALP: REPORT OF A CASE. Arch Surg. 1935;30(2):266–276. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1935.01180080090006
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