—Braasch1 reviewed the urographic and clinical data in 102 cases of renal fusion observed at the Mayo Clinic from 1930 to 1938. The terms in current use, such as "horseshoe kidney," "lump kidney," "sigmoid kidney" and "crossed renal ectopic," are confusing and should be discarded in favor of a more accurate designation based on the relation of the fused kidneys to the vertebral column. Thus, renal fusion is bilateral when the two renal pelves are situated on opposite sides of the vertebral column, prevertebral when one or both pelves are situated anterior to the midvertebral line and unilateral when both pelves are situated on the same side. Bilateral fusion was observed in 84 cases, unilateral fusion in 13 and prevertebral fusion in 5.Renal fusion may be inferred in about half the cases from changes in the renal outlines as seen in plain roentgenograms. Stones are a
SCHOLL AJ, HINMAN F, von LICHTENBERG A, et al. REVIEW OF UROLOGIC SURGERY. Arch Surg. 1939;39(1):145–169. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1939.01200130148013
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