No attempt has been made to review the literature on circulation time completely for this presentation. Extensive references may be found elsewhere.1 All methods depend on determination of the time elapsing between intravascular injection of a substance and its arrival at another part of the body. This arrival may be determined objectively2 or subjectively.3 Loevenhart and his associates4 noted marked respiratory stimulation in animals and man following intravenous injection of a solution of sodium cyanide and proposed the use of sodium cyanide for the determination of circulation time in man. Robb and Weiss, however, carried out the first clinical study. Since then there have been several reports.5
The principal site of action of the cyanide radical has been demonstrated by Heymans and his associates6 to be the carotid bodies. Winder and his associates7 confirmed this effect on the carotid reflex mechanism by direct
SMITH LA, ALLEN EV, CRAIG WM. TIME REQUIRED FOR BLOOD TO FLOW FROM THE ARM AND FROM THE FOOT OF MAN TO THE CAROTID SINUSES: I. EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE, EXERCISE, INCREASED INTRAMUSCULAR TENSION, ELEVATION OF LIMBS AND SYMPATHECTOMY. Arch Surg. 1940;41(6):1366–1376. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1940.01210060063007
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