Claude Bernard in 1856 first produced experimental pancreatitis by the injection of bile and olive oil into the pancreatic ducts of animals. Opie1 first associated cholelithiasis with pancreatitis and suggested that the impaction of a gallstone at the "ampulla" produced a common channel and pancreatitis from the entrance of bile into the pancreatic duct. Archibald2 expressed the belief that uninfected bile would produce only acute edema of the pancreas, which usually subsided within a relatively short time. Rich3 recently suggested that metaplasia of the duct epithelium may produce obstruction with subsequent rupture of the duct and that the liberated trypsinogen is activated by contact with the tissues, with the resultant development of the acute pancreatitis. Some physiologists believe that the pancreas can at times secrete activated trypsin.
Dragstedt, Haymond and Ellis4 expressed the opinion that acute pancreatitis is produced by direct chemical action of the bile
IRENEUS C. EXPERIMENTAL BILE PANCREATITIS: WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO RECOVERY AND TO THE TOXICITY OF THE HEMORRHAGIC EXUDATE. Arch Surg. 1941;42(1):126–140. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1941.01210070129006
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