The problem of fluid replacement has presented itself both to biologists and to surgeons. In man the loss of water, electrolytes or blood leads to disturbances which are progressive and which alter the normal response to replacement therapy. It is our purpose to present in this paper: (1) a study of the abnormal physiologic picture which results from loss of water, electrolytes and blood; (2) the technic of fluid replacement; (3) a critical evaluation of blood replacement fluids, and (4) the present status of transfusion of ascitic fluid.
The indications for fluid replacement fall into four main groups:
1. Loss of body water.
2. Loss of electrolytes.
3. Loss of whole blood.
4. Loss of plasma.
While it is convenient for purposes of discussion to separate each type of depletion state, in actual practice the distinction is not clearcut, and one will find frequently the merging of one state into
MAES U, DAVIS HA. FLUID REPLACEMENT IN SURGICAL STATES: WITH PARTICULAR REFERENCE TO TRANSFUSION OF ASCITIC FLUID: A CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDY. Arch Surg. 1941;42(3):453–479. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1941.01210090002001
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