Ganter1 observed the movements of the duodenum in man by the use of the balloon method. Weitz and Vollers,2 Peiper and Isbert,3 Konishi4 and others have conducted studies by the same method. Studies on the flow of bile into the duodenum during fasting have been made by numerous investigators since Einhorn devised the duodenal drainage method. Lyon5 reported that during fasting the bile normally is not seen in the duodenal drainage fluid and when seen indicates a pathologic condition in the biliary tract. Inoue6 observed in his studies that the bile was generally expelled continuously and rarely in a periodic manner. Iwanaga7 reported that in man the bile was seen in the duodenal drainage fluid, while experiments on dogs (duodenal fistula) showed that generally an outflow of bile did not occur during fasting and occurred rarely in the so-called "periodic outflow" for two
MURAKAMI T, UCHIYAMA H. FUNCTIONS OF THE EXTRAHEPATIC BILE DUCTS AND SECRETORY FUNCTION OF THE LIVER: IV. CLINICAL STUDY ON THE RELATION BETWEEN THE DUODENAL MOVEMENTS AND THE EVACUATION OF BILE INTO THE DUODENUM DURING FASTING. Arch Surg. 1941;42(4):693–702. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1941.01210100053005
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