The occurrence of exophthalmic goiter in children is rather uncommon. In 1909, Sattler1 reported 3,477 cases of exophthalmic goiter, in 184, or 5.3 per cent, of which the patients were children under 16 years of age. In 1933, Bram2 summarized 13,000 cases of thyroid disease, in 102, or 0.8 per cent, of which the patients were children with exophthalmic goiter under the age of 11 years. Of 5,000 patients with exophthalmic goiter reported by Bram3 in 1937, 128, or 2.5 per cent, were children under 12 years of age. In 1937, Crile4 found only 4 patients with hyperthyroidism (0.02 per cent) under 5 years of age in a series of 26,682 patients with thyroid disease.
The causative agent responsible for exophthalmic goiter is not known. The part played by familial factors has been stressed by many authors. In 1868, Mackenzie5 found this disorder in 2
MOOLTEN RR, BRUGER M. EXOPHTHALMIC GOITER OF THE JUVENILE TYPE: A SURVEY OF THE LITERATURE ON THE FAMILIAL ASPECTS OF THIS DISEASE AND A REPORT OF TWO ADDITIONAL CASES. Arch Surg. 1942;45(4):623–632. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1942.01220040119013
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