The thermal injury due to freezing causes the loss of large amounts of protein-containing fluid at the site of thawing tissues; this was demonstrated by Harkins and associates.1 This fluid is derived from the circulating blood plasma, and its loss is accompanied by the development of shock. Mahoney2 has demonstrated that a similar type of shock results from cooling of peritoneal surfaces. In these respects thermal injuries due to freezing and burns resemble each other closely. In a recent book the clinical applications of these observations have been reemphasized by Harkins.3 Sir Thomas Lewis4 described the damage to capillaries, the development of edema and other changes following frostbite. In attempting to produce a pronounced diminution in the blood volume of experimental animals due solely to the loss of plasma from the vascular system, we have found that a modification of Harkins' freezing technic is reliable, consistent
MUIRHEAD EE, ASHWORTH CT, KREGEL LA, HILL JM. EXPERIMENTAL FREEZING SHOCK: CHANGES IN BODY FLUIDS AND TISSUES. Arch Surg. 1942;45(6):863–889. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1942.01220060002001
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