XVI. CONDITIONS INVOLVING THE FOOT AND ANKLE
—Schwartz and Heath605 conclude from clinical observation and laboratory investigation of the foot in action: (1) that perfect alinement between the foot and the leg can be maintained without muscle support; (2) that unusual development of the intrinsic and extrinsic muscles of the foot and the leg does not prevent pronation in stance and locomotion; (3) that the presence or the absence of pronation can be explained on the basis of functional characteristics of the os calcis and the cuboid bone and their physical relation to the astragalus and the tibia. (A neutral or varus position of the os calcis does not permit pronation of the foot.)These conclusions are in harmony with the observations of Morton606 and others that foot balance depends on two factors: (1) structural stability, by which is meant the arrangement of the bones and
PROGRESS IN ORTHOPEDIC SURGERY FOR 1941: A REVIEW PREPARED BY AN EDITORIAL BOARD OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF ORTHOPAEDIC SURGEONS. Arch Surg. 1943;46(1):74–137. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1943.01220070077007
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