—Boyd1 states that in operations for stones in the kidney one of the important duties of the surgeon is prevention of recurrence of stones by removal of all existing causes of formation of stones and by employment of an operative technic in which damage to the renal substance is limited to that which is absolutely necessary. It is necessary for the surgeon to have (1) a knowledge of the normal circulation in the kidney and of the variations which are by no means infrequent and (2) to know the conditions which are generally accepted as being the cause of or predisposing to the formation of stones. Briefly, these can be placed under four headings: (1) precipitation of urinary salts in the calices and pelves, (2) lack of free drainage from the kidney, or so-called urinary stasis, (3) injury to the mucous lining of the calices and pelves
SCHOLL AJ, HINMAN F, HEPLER AB, et al. REVIEW OF UROLOGIC SURGERY. Arch Surg. 1946;53(2):214–246. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1946.01230060217007
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