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February 1950

TORN DISCOID MENISCUS: Associotion of Discoid Meniscus with Congenitally High Position of the Fibular Head

Arch Surg. 1950;60(2):279-293. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1950.01250010297008

THE CONGENITALLY HIGH FIBULAR HEAD  The high fibular head is a regressive anomaly resulting from a developmental failure to exclude it from the knee joint.

THE FIBULA IN COMPARATIVE ANATOMY  The five forms of fibular development (Fürst), the urodele, the echidna, the human, the rodent and the ox forms, are shown in figure 1.The urodeles, such as the salamanders, are tailed amphibia, whose fibula equals the tibia in length. The two bones fuse to form an os cruris in the tailless amphibia (frogs and toads). These are the anura, or the salientia. The fibula articulates with the femur in some reptiles, but the tendency is toward its exclusion. In the turtle there is a slight participation of the fibula in the knee joint. The goose has a fibular facet on the lateral femoral condyle. Herzmark noted that the fibula articulated with the lateral femoral condyle in the

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