THE NEED for a substitute for blood has been recognized for some time. Many substitutes for whole blood have been proposed for use in the treatment of shock, nephrosis and other diseases for which transfusions are indicated. Early experience with whole blood revealed that it was necessary to cross match the blood of the donor with that of the recipient. This inconvenience, together with that of finding suitable donors at the time of the emergency requiring the need of a transfusion, led to the search for substitutes or a method for storing typed blood. A further point in favor of substitutes for blood is the high cost of treatment with blood or plasma as well as the frequent incidence of jaundice noted after the use of plasma during the war.
Citrated whole blood has been used widely for many years and still remains a desirable means of transfusion in certain
SMALL CS, PALMER GH. STUDIES OF RABBIT ORGANS AFTER INTRAVENOUS INJECTIONS OF PECTIN SOLS. Arch Surg. 1950;60(3):575–582. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1950.01250010594013