HEMORRHAGE from the gastrointestinal tract has always been a dramatic and awesome event, well known and written about in ancient times. During the past 10 to 15 years much interest has been shown in massive upper gastrointestinal bleeding. As one major hospital after another reports its results, many features have been studied intensively. Statistically, the knowledge of the frequency of massive versus mild hemorrhage, the importance of age, location of the ulcer, previous hemorrhages, diagnostic accuracy, etc., have become clarified. Old standard dictums, such as "large transfusions may blow out the clot," "the bleeding will stop when the blood pressure is low enough," "early feeding is harmful," "no patient ever dies of the first hemorrhage," etc., have been proved false and discarded. The widespread availability of large amounts of blood and the development of the modern specialty of anesthesiology have made the operations safer and the results more assured.
SALTZSTEIN HC, MAHLIN MS, SCHEINBERG SR. BLEEDING PEPTIC ULCER. AMA Arch Surg. 1953;67(1):29–42. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1953.01260040032005
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