OPERATING-room or immediate cholangiography is not a new procedure. Mirizzi1 first described its routine use in 1935. Many reports of its use have appeared in the literature, but few studies of its failures have been reported. We feel that study of the failures and difficulties encountered should aid in evaluating the procedure as well as help to reduce the percentage of failures.
This paper is a report of our personal experience during the past five years in the performance of 108 operating-room cholangiograms in the course of 144 cholecystectomies. In 36 cases no cholangiogram was done in the operating room for a variety of reasons which are summarized in Table 1. In 30 cases examination was believed to be unnecessary; in four cases the condition of the patient contraindicated the procedure, and in only two cases were we unable to cannulate the cystic duct. As we obtained more experience,