As more cardiac and great-vessel diseases are being surgically attacked, the need for accurate anatomical diagnosis becomes mandatory. While the classical history and physical examination remain the most important diagnostic tools available, they are frequently unable to give the high degree of anatomical exactness demanded by surgical intervention in central cardiovascular disease. Roentgenographic visualization of the contrast-filled heart and great vessels has proved to be one of the most useful of the special diagnostic procedures. Many methods have been described for arteriographic visualization of the aortic arch and its branches. In general, these methods may be divided into three groups: (1) angiocardiography, in which the dye passes through the heart and then into the aorta,10 with its modifications of right atrial catheterization23 and release of dye from an intra-atrial bulb9; (2) retrograde arterial catheterization via the carotid,5 the brachial,1 the radial,14 or the femoral
McCAUGHAN JJ, PATE JW. Aortography Utilizing Percutaneous Left Ventricular Puncture. AMA Arch Surg. 1957;75(5):746–751. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1957.01280170056034
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