Arteriography was first developed in the laboratory on amputated limbs, cadavers, and on animals. In 1931, Dos Santos1 demonstrated that it was feasible in the living patient. Clinical arteriography was chiefly of academic interest prior to the refinement of arterial surgery, arterial grafting, and thromboendarterectomy. This is no longer the case, since lesions formerly considered inaccessible are presently treated successfully by the surgeon.Arteriography has become a most valuable and vital adjunct to the work-up of the patient with advanced peripheral vascular disease. Patients with lesions that are amenable to surgery fall into two groups: those with intermittent claudication and those with gangrene. Of the former group, most of them can be aided by direct arterial surgery. In the latter group, it has been estimated that at least 25% of limbs threatened with major amputation may be salvaged by arterial surgery.The history and physical examination as always
LOWENBERG RI, LOWMAN RM. Peripheral Arteriography Utilizing Image Amplification and Cinemaroentgenography. AMA Arch Surg. 1960;80(1):80–86. doi:https://doi.org/10.1001/archsurg.1960.01290180082010
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