Thrombophlebitis cerula dolens (pseudoembolic thrombophlebitis, thrombophlebitis with gangrene, blue phlebitis of Gregoire, acute massive venous occlusion3,4,7,8,10-12,14) is an unusual form of thrombophlebitis that is rarely encountered. The clinical manifestations of the disease are striking and clear, and the treatment of the disease is uncertain.33 The prognosis is grave.
This form of thrombophlebitis is seldom confused with some other entity. It is a severe form of thrombophlebitis with massive venous engorgement and deep violaceous discoloration of the limb. Arterial insufficiency is a constant finding, and may be so severe that gangrene may occur.17-19,31 The arterial insufficiency may be due to reflex arteriospasm, or it may result from actual mechanical obstruction to blood flow due to massive intravenous clotting with trapping of blood in the limb.15,23,25 Both factors may be in effect simultaneously. The limb is usually cool, and loss of large amounts of fluid into the tissues
McDONALD ST, PERSON WN, TAYLOR LM. Thrombophlebitis Cerula Dolens: Treatment by Passive Exercise with Production of Pulmonary Embolus. AMA Arch Surg. 1960;80(2):350–353. doi:https://doi.org/10.1001/archsurg.1960.01290190170028
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