The multiplicity and potential size of the anastomotic channels linking the intracranial and extracranial circulations in the dog render the temporary reduction or elimination of arterial inflow to the brain via cervical occlusion of the extracranial cerebral circulation a difficult and prolonged surgical exercise. This is particularly true with regard to the posterior ( vertebral basilar) circulation because of the inevitable anastomotic reconstitution of the vertebral arteries cephalad to cervical ligation and because of the "surgical inaccessibility"7 of the basilar artery in the dog. Occlusion of the anterior circulation by ligation of the common carotid arteries and their immediate branches has not been successful in producing significant cerebral ischemia; even when combined with simultaneous closure of the vertebral arteries, bilateral occlusion of the common carotid system gives unpredictable results, frequently causing minimal or no demonstrable neurologic evidence of cerebral ischemia in the dog1 and the monkey.3
WHITE RJ, DONALD DE. Basilar-Artery Ligation and Cerebral Ischemia in Dogs. Arch Surg. 1962;84(4):470–475. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1962.01300220094016
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