Generally speaking, intrahepatic and postoperative residual gallstones are regarded as not being amenable to surgical therapy. Pribram,1 Walters and Wesson,2 and Best and co-workers3 employed various organic solvents, such as ethyl ether or chloroform, agents which are, however, aimed at dissolution of cholesterol stones. Bilirubin stones, and bilirubin-calcium stones in particular, are scarcely soluble in such organic preparations, and hence arises the question of the toxicity and pharmacologic side-effects of such measures. Although the incidence of cholesterol calculosis is increasing in Japan of late, bilirubin-calcium calculosis is characteristic of this type of involvement in Japan, and its incidence exceeds that of the former4 in this locality. Intrahepatic stones, residual gallstones, and most stones of the common bile duct are classified as bilirubin-calcium stones in Japan, and adequate therapy for them is urgently needed.5-7
One of us (T. H.)8 introduced rheologic methods for
MIYAKE H, HISATSUGU T. Disintegration of Gallstones and Urinary Calculi in Man: Experimental and Clinical Studies. Arch Surg. 1962;85(3):442–455. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1962.01310030090014
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