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February 1963

Blood Volume Adjustments to Shock in Dogs: Studies in Hemorrhagic and Endotoxic Shock

Author Affiliations

From the Division of Clinical Surgery, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Washington 12, D.C.

Arch Surg. 1963;86(2):267-271. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1963.01310080091021

After experimental hemorrhage in the dog, extravascular fluid enters the vascular compartment and effective circulation in an attempt to minimize the decrease in effective blood volume.1,2 As a result, the effective blood volume is not reduced to the extent anticipated. Other studies in experimental hemorrhagic or endotoxic shock in the dog show that trapping of both plasma and erythrocytes3,4 or plasma alone occurs.5,6 Thus factors which tend to increase and diminish effective blood volume are operative. This study is an attempt to demonstrate the net result of these factors in the shocked dog by comparing the effective blood volume with that anticipated.


Hemorrhagic Shock.  —Fifteen healthy dogs were subjected to hemorrhagic shock by the technique of Hardaway7 which avoided systemic heparinization of the animals. Subcutaneous morphine sulfate (1 mg. per pound) was used as premedication, and femoral artery cutdowns were performed under 1% procaine anesthesia.