Because the causes of massive hemorrhage in peptic ulcer are not always known, we analyzed the Cook County Hospital records for the 20 years from 1936 to 1955 for contributory factors. Four previous articles of this series were based on the records of 8,451 patients and discussed the general factors affecting 1,904 cases of acute gastroduodenal perforation1; the influence of certain symptoms and signs upon prognosis2; laboratory findings3; and the effects of surgery.4 As in previous reports, only those cases were accepted which showed roentgenologic, gastroscopic, operative, or necropsy evidence of a lesion. The methods used to analyze this material were the same as those described in detail in previous reports.1,2
This paper is a study of 2,008 patients, from the same hospital population sample, whose presenting problem was a massively bleeding gastroduodenal ulcer. We defined massive bleeding as (1) hematologic evidence
KOZOLL DD, MEYER KA. Massively Bleeding Gastroduodenal Ulcers: General Factors Influencing Incidence and Mortality. Arch Surg. 1963;86(3):445–454. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1963.01310090095018
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