Clinical observations and the more or less systematic use of various test methods have led to broadly defined concepts of the areas of mental functioning which are disturbed as a result of brain injury. Departing from these concepts many "brain injury tests" have been designed with the aim of diagnosing the existence of a brain injury or measuring the degree of intellectual deterioration in brain injury cases. The observation that the ability to solve problems on an "abstract level" is often highly impaired has been utilized for the construction of some tests, e.g., by Goldstein and Scheerer17 and Grassi.20 As memory disturbances of different kinds are often observed, memory tests have been used as diagnostic tools (see e.g., Wechsler,57 Morrow and Cohen39 and Knott, Bilodeau and Umberger33). Graham and Kendall,19 Benton,4 and others have described tests in which the patient is required
CRONHOLM B, SCHALLING D. Intellectual Deterioration After Focal Brain InjuryA Test Validation Study. Arch Surg. 1963;86(4):670–687. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1963.01310100154025
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