Recently lymphangiography has provided a useful and dynamic method of studying in vivo the lymphatic spread of malignant tumors and their involvement of regional and distant lymph nodes. Although the spread of malignant tumors by means of the lymphatic system has been recognized since the mid nineteenth century,1 this recognition has been based primarily on the pathologic study of surgical and autopsy material. Only recently have attempts been made to study the lymphatic system in vivo. In 1955 Kinmonth devised a method for the vital visualization of the lymphatic vessels and nodes.2 The modifications of this by Wallace et al3 and others have made practical the radiographic demonstration of the lymphatic system in clinical patients by the intralymphatic injection of contrast media. Lymph nodes involved with metastatic tumor can be shown to have a characteristic radiographic appearance, and thus lymphangiography offers a means of demonstrating lymph node
BOYD AD, ALTEMEIER WA. Lymphangiography in Management of Malignant Neoplasms of Lower Extremities. Arch Surg. 1963;86(6):911–918. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1963.01310120029006
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