It has been observed that malignant tumors occasionally seem to spread more rapidly after operation. This has never been proven statistically, nor has an adequate explanation been found. In experimental animals surgical stress in some instances may influence the growth of cancer. This factor may be due either to an increased virulence of the tumor or to a decreased resistance of the host to the tumor. Stress in animals has been produced by many means such as amputation of the limb bearing the tumor,15 or of another limb,13 by laparotomy,3 by liver massage,7 or by local trauma14 with a consequent increase in metastases. In other instances the stress has been produced by inoculation of chemicals such as formaldehyde solution (formalin),23 turpentine,1 or carbon tetrachloride.4 The results mentioned could be due to adrenal stimulation and increased adrenocorticosteroids. Cortisone increases the metastatic growth in
AGOSTINO D, CLIFFTON EE. Anesthetic Effect On Pulmonary Metastases in Rats: Development of Metastases of Walker 256 Carcinosarcoma. Arch Surg. 1964;88(5):735–739. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1964.01310230011003
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