While it is generally accepted that living autogenous bone is the most effective bone grafting material available,1-6 the relative value of various substitutes remains controversial. Homogenous and heterogenous bone, ivory,7 cow horn,7 and inorganic salts such as calcium phosphate8-10 and sulphate11 have all been studied as well as bone modified in many ways including boiling,2,12,13,10 freezing,2,8,14,15 lyophilizing,15,16 deproteinizing,17, 14,5 and decalcifying.14,17-19 F. J. Marchand as early as the 19th century stated:It is already sufficiently known that either fresh bone taken from living animals or bone killed in various ways can serve as a more or less complete substitute for and cause healing of a bone defect.20 However, it still remains to be determined which of the various types of devitalized bone may serve best in facilitating healing of a skeletal defect. The following study was carried out
FREIBERG RA, RAY RD. Studies of Devitalized Bone Implants. Arch Surg. 1964;89(3):417–427. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1964.01320030007002
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