M techniques have been used in an attempt to revascularize the heart. In 1929, Beck1 developed poudrage2 techniques in an attempt to increase myocardial blood flow. In 1951, Vineberg and Miller3,4 described the internal mammary artery implantation into the myocardium as a technique for revascularization of the heart. There rapidly followed omentopexy, endarterectomy, and endarterotomy, with dilatation of the vessel. By 1959, selective coronary arteriography was proven possible in large numbers of patients providing anatomical information about sites of occlusion and their severity. Sones5 at the Cleveland Clinic did the first large number of these and with Effler6 showed the feasibility of attacking a small percentage of the observed coronary occlusions. Because of the tedious nature of mechanical endarterectomy and the poor results obtained (Bailey,7 Sabiston,8 Cannon and Longmire9) when it was necessary to endarterectomize more than 2 to 3 cm, vascular
Sawyer PN, Kaplitt M, Sobel S, et al. Experimental and Clinical Experience With Coronary Gas Endarterectomy. Arch Surg. 1967;95(5):736–742. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1967.01330170044006
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