THE ORIGIN of clinical dialysis can be traced to the work of Abel, Turner and Rowntree1 who in 1913 dialyzed uremic dogs using an extracorporeal circuit and a semipermeable membrane made of colodion. To prevent clotting in the circuit, hirudin, an extract from leeches, was used. There was not much activity in this field until 1943 when Willem Kolff2 used an extracorporeal dialyzer ("Rotating Drum") to dialyze a patient with clinical uremia. This was done in the Netherlands during World War II. Dr. Kolff truly established himself as the father of clinical dialysis. After the war, impetus was again generated and dialysis was recommended for the treatment of acute renal failure (ARF) and poisonings. The concept of using extracorporeal hemodialysis primarily for ARF prevailed until the end of the 1950 to 1960 era. During this time an occasional patient who had chronic renal disease was dialyzed, but only
Lawton RL, Gulesserian HP, Rossi NP. Surgical Problems in Patients on Maintenance Dialysis. Arch Surg. 1968;97(2):283–290. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1968.01340020147018
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